While ruling all over the world, the world of Islam has suddenly lost its high-ranking position against the West with the changes and advances in art and science. Tanzimat Reform Era is a period in which all the limits have been pushed when Ottoman Empire is concerned. Western highbrows and authors have been not only castigating the Islam but also urging the Muslims to criticize their own religions. The West, having the upper hand with respect to art and science after the industrial revolution, has shown its success with regard to religion and faith. It has presented that the world of Islam has been underdeveloped because of its religion. According to the West, the Islamic religion has interfered with the art and science. Ernest Renan’s conference has been influential as he could be considered as one of the pioneers in the positivism with his outstanding viewpoints. Islamic scholars from various countries and nations have written rebuttals against the ideas in Renan’s conference. Among these rebuttals, Namık Kemal’s Renan Müdâfaanâmesi has taken an important place. Namık Kemal tries to confute the ideas presented in this conference in the light of the Islamic and scientific examples. In the present article, Namık Kemal’s rebuttals is investigated through a comparative analysis. Renan’s each claim is examined with Islamic examples and explanations. This literary work of Namık Kemal’s, which shines out among Renan’s rebuttals, is analyzed concerning not only the responses given but also the contradictions in the light of Namık Kemal’s viewpoint and ideas. This study presents as an anti-thesis to Islamic and scientific discussions.


Namık Kemal, The Islam and science, Renan Müdâfaanâmesi, Ernest Renan, pozitivism

Author : Ahmet USLU
Number of pages: 425-449
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29228/ijla.43545
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International Journal of Language Academy
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